Human Biospecimens for Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Research
Elucidating Molecular and Genetic Characteristics
AML is a complex and aggressive type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, caused by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal myeloid cells. As the abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow, they interfere with the normal production of healthy blood cells, which can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and an increased risk of infections and bleeding. AML is currently diagnosed through a combination of blood tests, bone marrow biopsy, and imaging studies.
"Researchers around the world are working to develop new testing and treatment methods."
Ongoing research is focused on better understanding the underlying biology of AML, improving diagnostic methods, and developing more effective treatments. Some of the current research areas in AML include:
Genetic and molecular profiling
Researchers are studying the genetic and molecular abnormalities that drive AML, in order to develop targeted therapies that can more effectively treat the disease.
A type of treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer cells. Researchers are investigating the use of immunotherapy in AML, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, which involves genetically modifying a patient's own T cells to specifically target cancer cells.
Novel drug therapies
Researchers are exploring new drug therapies for AML, including targeted therapies that specifically target the abnormal cells in AML while sparing healthy cells, and combination therapies which involve using multiple drugs or treatment approaches in combination.
Stem cell transplantation
Stem cell transplantation is a treatment that involves replacing damaged or diseased bone marrow with healthy stem cells from a donor. Researchers are working to improve the success rates and reduce the risks associated with stem cell transplantation.
Biosamples are essential for AML research, as they provide researchers with the ability to study the molecular and genetic characteristics of the disease, as well as test potential new treatments. Here are the standard biosamples used in AML research:
Blood samples are often used to diagnose AML, monitor disease progression, and evaluate response to treatment. Researchers can analyze the blood cells and their genetic mutations to identify potential targets for therapy.
Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced. Bone marrow biopsies and aspirates are commonly used to diagnose AML and determine the extent of the disease. Bone marrow samples are also used to study the disease’s molecular and genetic characteristics.
Tissue samples from the spleen, lymph nodes, or other affected organs can provide valuable information on the extent and progression of AML and potential therapy targets.
Researchers can create cell lines from AML samples to study the disease in a controlled laboratory environment. These cell lines can be used to test potential treatments and identify new therapeutic targets.
DNA and RNA
Researchers can isolate DNA and RNA from AML samples to study the genetic mutations and gene expression patterns associated with the disease. This information can be used to identify potential targets for therapy and develop new diagnostic tools.
When considering a new clinical biosamples provider, researchers should check factors such as sample quality, storage conditions, and the availability of associated clinical data and confirm that informed consent is a mandatory requirement from patients before acquiring their biosamples for research purposes. Additionally, researchers must adhere to strict ethical guidelines, follow relevant regulations, and respect patient privacy.
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